POLY TRB / UNIT VIII / Family of Indo European Languages



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Unit – VIII English Language and Linguistics

01Family of Indo-European Languages03
02Characteristics of the Germanic Language07
03Old English10
04Middle English12
05Modern English14
06Standard English16
07Growth of Vocabulary19
08Change of Meaning25
12Minimal Pair60
13Perspectives of Linguistics63
14Historical Linguistics72
20Lingua Franca99
22Structural Linguistics105
23Phrase and Structure110
24Transformational Generative Grammar114
26Theories of Language Acquisition117
27Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing (LSRW)120
28Dichotic Listening124
29Methods of Teaching129
30Linguistic Terms132

1. Family of Indo European Languages

Family of Indo-European Languages: (9)

  • It is called as Indo – Aryan or Indo Germanic.
  • It was spoken during 3500 BC to 3000BC.

Eastern Group: (5)

  • It is called “Satem Group” and it has 5 languages.
  • Armenian
  • Albanian
  • Indian
  • Iranian
  • Balto-Slavic

Western Group: (4)

  • It is called “Centum Group” and it has 4 languages.
  • Greek
  • Latin
  • Celtic
  • Primitive Germanic or Primitive Teutonic
  1. Armenian:
  2. The language is found in south of the Caucasus Mountains and the eastern end of the Black sea.
  3. It has Persian influence
  • Albanian:
  • It was spoken in northwest on Greece and east coast of the Adriatic sea.
  • Indian:
  • Sanskrit was spoken during 1500 BC.
  • Panini who was the great grammarian of 4th century gave a fixed literary form for Sanskrit.
  • Paliis the language of Buddhists.
  • A dialect of Hindi with a good mixture of Persian and Arabic is known as Hindustani.
  • Iranian:
  • Iranian was spoken in the north-western India.
  • Balto-Slavic:
  • It has its origin in Eastern parts of Europe.
  • Greek  or Hellonic:
  • It was spoken in Greece, Aegean and the coast of Asia Minor.
  • Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey were existed in 8th century B.C.
  • The important dialect is Attic (Athens).
  • Latin or Italic:
  • It is the language of Italy.
  • It includes…..
  • Dante’s Divine comedy
  • Virgil’s Aeneid
  • Petrarch, Boccacio, Cicoro (Roman Orator)
  • It is called as Romanic Language.
  • Celtic:
  • The language of the Celts in Gaul is called as Gaelic.
  • Germanic:
  • It is called as Primitive Germanic or Primitive Teutonic.
  • It has three divisions.
    • East Teutonic
    • North Teutonic
    • West Teutonic
  • It was spoken in central and Northern Europe from 2000 to 1000 BC.

East Teutonic:

  • The principal language of East Teutonic is Gothic.
  • The earliest work was the Bible Translation by Bishop Ulfilas in 4th Century.

North Teutonic:

  • It was found in Scandinavia and Denmark
  • Scandinavian is called as Old Norse.

West Teutonic:

  • It is divided into two categories.

      1. Low German

      2. High German

  • Luther’s translation of the Bible was first printed in High German
  • The Low German Languages are Old Saxon, Old Low Franconian, Old Frisian, and Old English.

1. Family of Indo European Languages

  1.  The family of Indo-European languages has _________ major groups.

(A) 2                            (B) 4                            (C) 7                            (D) 9

  • Who is 4th century BCE Indian grammarian, wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language?

(A) Bhartrhari             (B) Panini                    (C) Pingala                 (D) Vararchi

  • What is the principal language of East Teutonic?

(A) Gothic                   (B) Scandinavian         (C) Danish                  (D) Old Norse  

  • English belongs to the _____________ group.

(A) East Teutonic        (B) West Teutonic       (C) North Teutonic      (D) South Teutonic  

  • Which of the languages is not under group of Centum in Indo-European Family?

(A) Greek                                                        (B) Latin                     

(C) Indian                                                       (D) Primitive Teutonic

  • Which of the languages is not under group of Satem in Indo-European Family?

(A) Armenian              (B) Albanian                (C) Indian                    (D) Celtic

  • English descended from the Western set (group) of the Indo-European family languages which is also called ________ (PG – 2015)

(A) Centum                  (B) Satem                    (C) Armenian              (D) Albanian

  • The ultimate origins of the English language lie in which language family?

(A) Indo-European      (B) Indo-Anglican       (C) Latin                      (D) Greek

  • Which is not a regional group into which Germanic languages are divided?

(A) North Teutonic      (B) South Teutonic      (C) East Teutonic        (D) West Teutonic

  1. Which of the following is not a result of the Viking invasion of England?

(A) the addition of “sk” words to the English vocabulary

(B) the addition of third person personal pronouns to the English language

(C) the destruction of Christian churches, schools and monasteries

(D) the influxion of French culture and French literature into England  

  1. Which old English dialect became the direct ancestor of modern literary English?

(A) Mercian                 (B) West-Saxon            (B) Northumbrian       (D) Kentish

  1. Which of the following is belonged to the group of West Germanic language?

(A) Gothic                   (B) Old Norse              (C) Icelandic               (D) Frisian

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